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          亞麻地板安裝
          目錄
          1. 地板簡介
          2. 亞麻地板分類
          2.1 DIN EN 548 彈性地面覆蓋物—樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.2 DIN EN 686 彈性地面覆蓋物—泡沫材料底面上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.3 DIN EN 687 彈性地面覆蓋物—軟木上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.4 DIN EN 688 彈性地面覆蓋物—軟木亞麻地板規范
          3. 亞麻地面覆蓋物用粘合劑
          3.1 粘合劑類型
          3.1.1 分散粘合劑
          3.1.2 接觸型粘合劑
          3.1.3其他粘合劑
          4. 亞麻地面覆蓋物安裝
          4.1基層
          4.2 儲存及調溫
          4.3 安裝條件
          4.4 安裝
          4.4.1 薄板狀亞麻地面覆蓋物的安裝
          4.4.1.1 亞麻辦切割
          4.4.1.2 地板端頭切割
          4.4.1.3切邊
          4.4.1.4粘結
          4.4.2 片狀安裝
          4.4.3型材粘結
          4.5 接縫密封
          4.5.1 接縫熱焊接
          4.5.2 使用雙組份接縫密封劑進行接縫密封
          4.6 特殊地面覆蓋物結構
          4.7 清潔和維護
          5. 相關標準及技術簡介
          5.1 工業安全
          5.2 亞麻地板標準
          5.3 亞麻地板粘合劑標準
          5.4 地板安裝工程標準
          5.5 其他標準及技術簡介
          5.6 參考文獻及注釋
          1.簡介
          本技術簡介就亞麻地板的安裝材料選擇向安裝人員給予了建議。內容涉及根據相關歐洲標準分類的各種亞麻地板。安裝亞麻地板時,必須考慮地面覆蓋物的具體特征。亞麻地板可為薄板狀或地板磚狀,采用全粘法安裝。
          本簡介不涉及特殊結構上的亞麻地板粘接,例如運動場地板結構粘接、工業地板粘接、亞麻與軟木或泡沫材料底面或導電材料粘接在—起。
          亞麻地板主要由可再生原材料制成,例如氧化亞麻油、樹脂、軟木及,或木粉,在壓光工序中以適當方式將這些材料混合之后,再將其熔凝到載板上。將由此制得的板材放在加熱干燥室內養護,直到達到相應標準的要求。安裝期間,必須考慮亞麻地板的諸多特征性能。
          在安裝/粘接期間,亞麻地板可能與空氣、基層或粘合劑中的水分發生反應,從而導致地板材料的尺寸發生變化。
          一般備注:
          彈性地面覆蓋物上難免出現因重負荷物引起的、在聚光燈下可見的殘留壓痕。但是,通過選用正確的粘合劑、適量涂覆(使用TKB推薦的缺口尺寸適當的齒形刮刀)、正確處理、選擇適當的座椅/家具滑塊(大而平整的接觸面、無尖銳邊緣)及/或在可移動的家具下設置適用的壓力分配襯底或者使用滾輪(如EN1 2529所述W型),可以最大程度地減少所述壓痕。
          這其中還包括家具使用必須與地板構造相符。
          2.亞麻地板分類
          2.1  DIN EN 548彈性地面覆蓋物——樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.2  DIN EN 686彈性地面覆蓋物——泡沫材料底面上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.3  DIN EN 687彈性地面覆蓋物——軟木上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          2.4  DIN EN 688彈性地面覆蓋物——軟木亞麻地板規范
          3. 亞麻地面覆蓋物用粘合劑
          根據成分、處理類型、固化特性及基層要求,對不同粘合劑類型予以劃分。
          3.1 粘合劑類型
          建議最好是選用排放極低的EMICODE EC1/EC1 R類粘合劑。僅使用經地板制造商認可能夠用于亞麻地面覆蓋物粘接的粘合劑。一定要嚴格遵循用量或刮刀缺口尺寸方面的說明。
          最好是使用不合溶劑、排放極低且用于單面涂抹的EMICODE EC1分散粘合劑。或者,也可以代之以接觸型或干型粘合劑(例如,用于構造基座)、雙組分分散.水泥基粘合劑或反應性樹脂粘合劑(例如用于非吸水性基層上或用于承載負荷較大的情況).
          3.1.1  分散粘合劑
          分散粘合劑是將有機粘合材料分散在水、無機填料及添加劑中而得到。固化基于物理過程(即粘合劑中所含的水蒸發)而發生。分散粘合劑的性能主要受安裝環境條件的影響。高溫及,或低濕度會加速固化,低溫及,或高濕度會推遲固化。
          在粘接亞麻地面覆蓋物時,只能將分散粘合劑用于濕潤粘合劑層涂覆。此時需要使用吸水性基層。使用TKB齒形刮刀,在預制基層上涂抹粘合劑。分散粘合劑在開罐后的存放期(開放時間)較短,應在粘合劑固化前,將亞麻地面覆蓋物放在粘合劑層中。若超過開放時間,則濕度不夠,會導致粘接強度不夠(例如出現中空區)。
          3.1.2接觸型粘合劑
          溶劑基接觸型粘合劑由已溶解的有機粘合材料、高揮發性溶劑(高達80%)、無機填料及添加劑構成。接觸型分散粘合劑主要通過將天然及合成橡膠分散在無極無機填料及添加劑中的方式得到。
          僅利用接觸粘合法,來處理接觸型分散粘合劑。在兩面(即預制基層面以及地面覆蓋物底面)均涂抹這種粘合劑,且應在安裝地面覆蓋物之前,風干至足夠程度。這些粘合劑主要用于小面積安裝,例如樓梯上的底板和地板的粘接。
          注:
          出于職業健康與安全方面的考慮,德國Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV)(有害物質法令)以及德國Technische Regeln Gefahrstoffe (TRGS)(有害物質技術條例)61 0中嚴格限制了對溶劑含量高的粘合劑的使用。無論何時,都可以使周不合溶劑的粘合劑來粘接亞麻地板。
          3.1.3其它粘合劑
          反應性樹脂粘合劑由具有化學反應性的有機粘合材料、無機填料及添加劑構成。反應性樹脂粘合劑主要為基于聚氨酯或環氧樹脂的雙組分系統,通過化學反應實現固化。因此,其罐內存放期或處理期均較短。這些粘合劑的固化速度主要受粘合劑、基層、地面覆蓋物和環境的溫度的影響。雙組分反應性樹脂粘合劑需要完全遵循混合比要求,并應小心混合。
          雙組分分散/水泥基粉狀粘合劑由液體組分、水泥及,或石膏基粉末組分、填料及添加劑組成,其中所述液體組分以分散于水中的有機粘合劑為基礎。除物理干燥外,通過與粉末組分發生反應的方式,以化學方式將粘合劑內的大部分水加以結合。通過化學方式將水
          結合,從而減少了排放至環境(這里指地面覆蓋物和基層)中的水,并加速了固化。因此,這些粘合劑還可用于非吸水性或吸水不佳的基層上。在混合結束后,便會立即發生化學反應。這些產品的罐內存放期和開罐后的存放期均較短。
          干型粘合劑呈帶狀,其兩面均有粘性,寬度不定。干型粘合劑在交貨時已經過制造商預先干燥,因此無需因風干、固化及干燥而耗費時間。在正確安裝后,即可承重。在用于底板和樓梯時,必須咨詢干型粘合劑制造商和亞麻地面覆蓋物制造商。
          4. 亞麻地面覆蓋物安裝
          4.1  基層
          TKB技術簡介8“用于安裝地面覆蓋物和鑲木地板的基層評估和制備”以及BEB技術簡介(基層的評估和制備。彈性及紡織地面覆蓋物、復合地板、鑲木地板及鋪地木板的安裝。受熱及非受熱地板結構)包含所需測試的相關說明詳情及規范。
          應采用專業的方法,將亞麻地面覆蓋物粘接在符合標準要求(即,經過評估且正確制備)的基層的整個表面上(參見(地面覆蓋物作業)第3.1.1、3.3和3.4.3節)。安裝底板時,墻面必須足夠干燥、足夠平整。
          4.2  儲存及調溫
          應將亞麻地板儲存在干燥的地方,并應成卷豎立存放。在根據卷號依次拆開卷材后,對板材進行預切割,每米切割長度放寬1 cm,或者切割至比安裝所需長度放寬10 cm(最多)的長度。然后,在粘接前,將板材以耐磨面朝外的方式再次卷起(卷松點),然后豎立放置在安裝室內,放置時間至少為24小時,以使其充分適應室內環境條件。室內溫度至少為18℃。濕度優選為40 - 65%。
          若亞麻地板為地板磚狀,則只能根據制造商的說明,將其放在水平表面上調溫。
          4.3  安裝條件
          應遵循下述有關溫度和相對濕度的閾值:
          ·相對濕度40 - 65%
          ·室溫至少18 ℃
          ·所用材料(例如地板、粘合劑)溫度至少18 ℃
          ·基層溫度至少15℃,若基層會受熱,則受熱后的最高溫度不得超過22℃
          根據安裝材料對固化、干燥和反應時間的要求,在安裝前、安裝期間以及安裝結束后7天內,應一直保持上述室內環境條件。在粘合劑完全固化前,應對安裝區進行保護,使其免受陽光直射或其它熱影響因素的影響。必要時,在安裝人員要求采取這些措施或宣布由安裝人員執行這些措施后,客戶應確保采職了這些必要措施。
          鋪開的板材應立即粘接到整個表面上。在涂抹分散粘合劑之前,必須將致密的非吸水性基層(例如,液體瀝青或已密封的砂漿)找平至足夠的厚度(建議:干層厚度為2-3mm)。
          4.4  安裝
          4.4.1  薄板狀亞麻地面覆蓋物的安裝
          原則上,不得彎曲亞麻地面覆蓋物,否則可能導致其斷裂。在粘接前,折疊板材時,折疊區一定要保持足夠大的半徑。
          4.4.1.1亞麻板切割
          切割板材時,一定要考慮的是,地板可能發生與材料相關的尺寸變化,尤其是在接縫和踢腳板區。在粘接期間,亞麻地面覆蓋物在長度上會收縮,在寬度上會膨脹,尤其是在使用分散型粘合劑時。
          4.4.1.2地板端頭切割
          對于地板端頭而言,必須避免縱向的長度變化,以便進行精確切割。在這些睛況下,若板長超過6米,則預留1.5米長的地板暫時不粘貼。一旦中間粘貼部位的粘合劑達到足夠的強度且板材鎖固到位,則將剩余部分粘接并放入到粘合劑層中。
          對于較短的板材以及長板的板頭而言,在接下來不直接接合的情況下,將亞麻板折疊鋪滿室內一半的面積。然后,涂抹分散粘合劑,將板材放在粘合劑層中,并向下摩擦按壓。這之后,才精確切割板頭。然后根據規定,將板材安裝在室內的另一半面積上。
          只有在將板材放入粘合劑層之后,才能安裝、切割端縫。
          4.4.1.3 切邊
          板材的兩個邊緣均需要切割。即使隨后需要使用焊絲來焊接接縫,第一邊緣(通常是板材的同側)的被切割長度依然應至少為1.5 -2 cm。切割之后,板材邊緣必須完全位于基層上,與基層對齊。否則,必須重新切割邊緣。在涂抹粘合劑前,應使用合適的亞麻板邊緣切割刀,對第一邊緣進行切割。在將板材放入粘合劑層中(見4.4.1.4)之后,再切割第二板材邊緣
          (接縫切割)。
          切邊
          圖1:切邊
          4.4.1.4 粘結
          應根據4.4.1.2第一節的說明,對必須緊密配合到相鄰建筑部分(例如門檻及門框)的半塊板材進行粘接。對于長而窄的走廊而言,應沿著長度方向粘接,因此同樣可能需要將板材橫向折疊。在涂抹粘合劑(通常使用尺寸為B1的TKB齒形刮刀)之后,立即以無張
          力的方式,將板材放入粘合劑層中。必須將板頭部分向下滾壓(消除卷曲X粘合劑的涂抹區域只能是在粘合劑的開放時間內能夠進行處理并向下滾壓的區域。在放入粘合劑層之后,地板底面必須充分濕潤。及時更換齒形條。在整個安裝期間,應定期檢查濕潤處理是否正確。
          在切割第二板材邊緣時,沿著下層已切割的板材對上層板材劃線,然后使用鉤型刀片切割上層板材。刀片不得將粘合劑擠開。使用專用接縫和板條切割刀,可一次完成所述切割。為避免接縫受到壓力(接縫凸起),可將板材邊緣切割成0.5 mm的揍縫。以微帶一定角度的方式,從上往下切割接縫(底切),使得接縫底部稍寬。應用接縫輥再次向下滾壓接縫區域,或者在切割后使用壓錘向下輕敲。
          一定要注意粘合劑是否過期。若超過開放時間,則地面覆蓋物粘結面的潤濕度可能不夠。確保不存在氣穴。為使地板底面全部濕潤,必須在整個表面上向下摩擦按壓,然后再滾壓。在對地板進行向下摩擦按壓或滾壓時,開始時先沿著寬度方向,然后再沿著長度方向,從而以最直接的方式消除氣穴。然后,必須用錘子的柄部來檢查該區域是否存在中空區(氣穴),
          若存在,則將其去除。必要時,在接下來的5 - 20分鐘內,再次摩擦接縫、板頭和流掛,或者將其壓低。在進行向下摩擦按壓時,建議使用覆蓋有軟木或毛氈的木質平滑輥:在進行向下滾壓地板時,使用重量不小于65 kg且寬度約為40 cm的多面滾輪。
          若隨后需要進行接縫密封,則也應采用與此相同的處理方法。
          流掛
          流掛是指持續受包裹力影響的板材區域,因此能夠導致出現中空區。在養護過程中會導致流掛,材料在干燥箱中產生大型環狀懸掛。流掛最常出現在每個完整地板卷材的中部,地板厚度或溫度不同,流掛的明顯程度也不同(始終遵循制造商關于這些區域的粘接說明)。
          4.4.2  片狀亞麻地板安裝
          片狀具有黃麻或聚酯,玻璃纖維底面。在選擇粘合劑及用量時,請考慮這一點(使用合適的齒形刮刀進行涂抹)。
          一般情況下,安裝時,在交錯方向上具有十字接縫(棋盤形X在安裝這種地板磚時,先根據基準線和第一排地板磚的安裝起點,以平行于安裝室正面的方式,鋪設地板磚,這樣,在邊緣區域中,邊緣地板磚的尺寸便不會小于1 0 cm。只能用粉筆畫出基準線。為防止偏差出現,建議分步安裝,尤其是在棋盤形安裝中,更應如此。
          4.4.3  型材粘接
          建議使用經地板制造商認可的干型粘合劑或接觸型分散粘合劑來粘接型材。若技術允許,則盡量減少對溶劑含量高的接觸型粘合劑的使用(見第3.1,3節)。在使用干型粘合劑或接觸型分散粘合劑時,需粘接的元件必須能夠精確配合,否則后期便幾乎不能加以糾正。在安裝結束后,必須立即按壓元件,在整個長度上向下輕輕敲嚴實。
          4.5接縫密封
          4.5.1  接縫熱焊接
          建議對商業區(尤其是衛生區)的亞麻地板接縫進行焊接。對于容易受濕氣影響的基層(例如含木粒的面板、結合有石膏的基層)而言,以及對于清洗頻繁的房間而言,一般情況下,應始終執行接縫焊接。
          只有在粘合劑完全固化后才能執行熱焊接,原則上,最早的熱焊接時間是24小時后,但最好是2-3天后再進行熱焊接(參見制造商的說明X使用特殊銑削工具或開槽工具來打開接縫,打開接縫的寬度應約為3.5 mm,深度不超過地板厚度的2/3。必須仔細清潔(吸塵)接縫。可使用自動熱熔機(焊接線必須在不受力的狀態下穿過機器)或者帶快焊噴嘴的手動焊機來加工焊絲(焊絲延伸長度為5 mm)。為避免損壞地板表面,應選擇出氣口較窄的焊接噴嘴。一定要避免超過盛低于規定加工溫度的情況。工作速度應使得融化的焊絲能夠在稍微施加壓力的情況下輕松地進入磨槽(2.5 - 3.0米/分鐘),并進而填滿磨槽。采用如下兩個步驟來去除多余材料:
          ·在接縫尚未冷卻時,用帶修整導向件的鋒利的月牙鏟刀來執行第一步去除。
          ·只有在接縫完全冷卻之后,才能進行第二步去除
          ——去掉多余材料,使接縫與地板表面相平,期間依然使用月牙鏟刀。
            注:
          若不使用月牙鏟刀,則我們建議使用Mozart工具刀,這種刀的設計使其能夠僅去除接縫部分的多余材料,從而最大程度地降低(甚至避免)了對地面的損害。
          4.5.2 使用雙組份接縫密封劑進行接縫密封
          使用單或雙組分接縫密封劑(例如基于聚氨酯的密封件),可滿足特殊的接縫密封要求(例如,在實驗室中或者在保健區內)。一定要遵循地板制造商的相關建議。
          4.6 特殊地面覆蓋物結構
          若將亞麻地面覆蓋物安裝到軟木結構上,若復合地板帶有軟木或泡沫材料底面,若安裝在合適的防沖擊隔音層上,若亞麻地面覆蓋物具有導電性,則應始終遵循地板及粘合劑制造商的相關說明。
          4.7  清潔和維護
          安裝人員應至少在完成如VOB DIN 18365的C部分所述的安裝之前,向客戶提交地面覆蓋物書面注意說明書和訂單確認書。
          應使用系統清潔及維護產品,這些產品不得對地面覆蓋物的性能產生不利影響。
          5. 相關標準及技術簡介
          請在下文中找到相應的標準和技術簡介。適用當前版本。
          5.1  工業安全
          Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoftV),發布于2004年12月23日(BGBI.IS 3758),根據2008年12月1 8日法令第2條修正(BGBI.IS 2768)
          5.2亞麻地板標準
          若有需要,應檢查標準的有效性(例如www.beuth.de)
          DIN EN 685
          彈性、紡織及復合地面覆蓋物——分類
          2007年11月
          DIN EN 548
          彈性地面覆蓋物——樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地扳的規范
          2004年11月
          DIN EN 687
          彈性地面覆蓋物——軟木上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          1997年9月
          DIN EN 686
          彈性地面覆蓋物——泡沫材料底面上的樸素亞麻與裝飾性亞麻地板的規范
          1997年9月
          DIN EN 688
          彈性地面覆蓋物——軟木亞麻地板規范
          1997年9月
          5.3  亞麻地板粘合劑標準
          DIN EN 14259
          地面覆蓋物用粘合劑——機械電氣性能要求
          2004年7月
          5.4 地板安裝工程標準
          5.5  其它標準及技術簡介
          TKB技術簡介6
          地面覆蓋物、木板覆蓋物及地板磚所適用的刮刀欲口尺寸
          2007年5月
          TKB技術簡介8
          用于安裝地面覆蓋物和鑲木地板的基層評估和制備
          2004年6月
          TKB技術簡介9
          自流平技術規范及安裝
          2008年4月
          奉技術簡介中的內容基于出版人員的所有相關知識。其僅供信息參考之用,是非約束性指導文件,不具備任何形式的代表或保證作用。若有疑問,應執行測試安裝。本件為翻譯件,僅供參考,以英語原件的描述為準。
          校對者注釋:
          條目3.1 粘合劑類型
          “一定要嚴格遵循用量或刮刀缺口尺寸方面的說明”。亞麻地板背襯為黃麻網,粘合劑必須具有良好填充性。選用刮齒為TKB規范之B1、B2,每平方米用膠量為500克左右。粘合劑用量不足將導致填充型不足,造成粘結面不密實,地板鼓包。下圖為亞麻地板背襯,粘合劑必須具有良好的填充性,確保黃麻網和地板本體都能與粘合劑緊密接觸。
          亞麻地板背底
          條目3.1.1分散粘合劑
          本條目所指分散粘合劑特指德國系丙烯酸乳液體系的產品。這個產品體系以丙烯酸樹脂為主,添加增粘樹脂,將大量填料和樹脂均勻分散于水中。美國系亞麻粘合劑為丁苯乳液體系,初粘和終粘更好,上海世博會中國館即采用美系亞麻粘合劑。
          條目3.1.2 接觸型劑類型
          本條目所指接觸型劑簡單理解為“萬能膠”,高溶劑含量,施工中釋放高揮發的溶劑蒸汽,有毒、易燃,大面積使用具有爆炸危險。一般在樓梯、地板上墻的時候使用。
          目前德國最先進的水性萬能膠不合有機溶劑,低揮發,性能完全可以取代溶劑型萬能膠,如德國優成的WK222。
          條目3.1.3 其他粘合劑
          雙組份聚氨酯或環氧粘合劑適用于大厚度、高人流量的環境。
          雙組份分散液/水泥或石膏粉磨類粘合劑已經淘汰。
          干型粘合劑為雙面膠,適用于需要快速安裝并立即投入使用的場所。國內的雙面膠未經測試,不可用于地板安裝。
          條目4.2 儲存及調溫
          本條目所述粘貼之前的預處理方法,與國內現有做法不同。國內—般做法為裁切后預鋪設,將地板放置在安裝環境中至少24小時。本條目認為裁切后將地板卷起(不卷緊)放置于安裝環境至少24小時。
          國內現有做法與本條目所述目的是一樣的,讓地板恢復尺寸并適應安裝環境的溫濕度。筆者認為TKB 4講述的方法更為科學。亞麻地板縱向收縮、橫向膨脹的加劇,與水性乳液型粘合劑有關,未使用粘合劑之前,這種收縮膨脹未必加劇。卷起豎立放置可能更有利于她板的適應溫度。
          現場卷起樹立放置比平面攤開放置有個缺點:地板卷芯處卷曲彈性較大,粘合劑的初粘力未必能粘住端頭。按照德國的做法,必要時,端頭卷曲處使用沙袋壓制,所以不存在問題。
          而國內呢?真沒見過誰在現場準備沙袋壓制地板端頭卷曲。
          條目4.3 安裝
          安裝亞麻地板,必須嚴守安裝條件限制。”安裝條件”指安裝前的環境預備,安裝施工中,安裝后7天養護。國內對環境溫度的理解往往簡單的歸結為施工中的環境溫度。施工時打開空調升溫,地表溫度與空氣溫度同步,需要三天時間。所以臨施工時升溫是無效的。
          避免陽光直射剛鋪設的亞麻地板,尤其是剛鋪設24小時之內,這段時間粘合劑尚未固化,沒有產生強度。陽光直射能使亞麻地板迅速升溫,急劇的溫度變化造成急劇的尺寸變化,出現鼓包、收縮膨脹等問題在所難免。
          4.4.1.4 粘結
          “必須將地板端頭部分向下滾壓(消除卷曲】。”限于分散粘合劑的有限初粘力,必要時,采用沙袋靜壓,確保粘接可靠、牢固。
          “一定要注意粘合劑是否過期。若超過開放時間,則地板覆蓋物粘結面的潤濕度可能不夠。”
          這里所指“是否過期”理解為是否超過可施工時間。可施工時間理解為粘合劑可以充份轉移到亞麻地板背襯的時間。超過可施工時間,粘合劑不能充份轉移,即為“粘合劑過期”。“潤濕”—詞為粘合劑能夠濕潤地板背襯,有效濕潤才能確保粘合劑轉移。丙烯酸分散乳液型亞麻地板粘合劑無需晾膠時間,涂膠后立即粘貼地板。
          國內所售亞麻地板粘合劑皆為德國系技術產物,為丙烯酸亞麻地板粘合劑。此類粘合劑嚴禁晾膠,施工時間—般不超過10分鐘,一次涂膠,必須在10分鐘內粘貼完畢絕,不可一次大面積涂膠后慢慢粘貼地板。
          條目4.4.1.3和4.4.1.4
          切割和切邊,見示意圖:
          錯誤的切割粘貼方法
          亞麻地板安裝錯誤的切割粘貼方法
          正確的切割粘貼方法
          亞麻地板安裝正確的切割粘貼方法
          條目4.5.1 接縫熱焊接
          這個問題在國內成為不可解決的大問題。亞麻地板的焊縫強度應超過地板本體。國內追求低成本,所有國產焊條都達不到要求,建議采用亞麻地板制造商原配的進口焊條。
          無論采用何種焊條焊接時間至少在地板安裝后24小時以后,最好在2-3天以后。粘合劑未固化前,焊接時的高溫破環接縫處的粘結強度。未固化的粘合劑含有大量待揮發水份,這些水份被焊接封閉于地板之下,必然造成鼓包。
           
          Installation of Linoleum Flooring
          Tables of contents
          1. Introduction
          2. Classification of Linoleum Floor
          2.1 DIN EN 548 Resilient Floor Coverings-Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum
          2.2 DIN EN 686 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Foam Backing
          2.3 DIN EN 687 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for plain and decorative on a Corkment Backing
          2.4 DIN EN 688 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for Cork Linoleum
          3. Adhesives for Linoleum Flooring
          3.1 Adhesive Types
          3.1 .1Dispersion Adhesives
          3.1.2Other Adhesives
          4. Installation of Linoleum Flooring
          4.1 Substrate
          4.2 Storage and Conditioning
          4.3 Installation Conditions
          4.4 Installation
          4.4.1 Installation of Linoleum Flooring in sheets
          4.4.4.1 Cutting of Linoleum Sheets
          4.4.1.2 Cutting of Heads
          4.4.1.3 Cutting of Edges
          4.4.1.4 Bonding
          4.4.2 Bonding of Linoleum Flooring in Tiles
          4.4.3 Bonding of Profiles
          4.5 Seam Sealing
          4.5.1 Thermal joint Sealing
          4.5.2 Joint Sealing with l- or 2-Component joint sealers
          4.6 Special Floor Covering Constructions
          4.7 Cleaning and Maintenance
          5. Relevant Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
          5.1 Industrial Safety
          5.2 Standards for Linoleum Flooring
          5.3 Standards for Adhesives for Linoleum Flooring
          5.4 Standards for Floor Covering Work
          5.5 Other Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
          5.6 Literature and Commentaries
          1. Introduction
          This technical briefing note advises the installer on selection of installation materials for linoleum flooring. It contains information on the different types's of linoleum flooring, classified according to the relevant European standards. When installing linoleum flooring, the specific characteristics of the floor covering must be taken into consideration. Linoleum flooring comes in form of sheets or tiles and is fully bonded during installation.
          This briefing note does not deal with bonding of linoleum flooring on special constructions, such as sport floor constructions, industrial floors, bonding of linoleum with corkment or foam backing or conductive installation.
          Linoleum flooring is mostly made from renewable raw materials such as oxidized linseed oil, resin, cork and/or wood flour which are fused to a carrier after appropriate mixing in a alendaring process. The sheets produced in this manner then mature in heated drying chambers until equirements specified in the respective standards are met. Linoleum flooring has a number of characteristic properties which must be taken into consideration during installation.
          During installation/bonding, linoleum flooring might react to moisture from air, substrate or adhesive resulting in dimensional changes of the flooring material.
          General note:
          Residual indentations visible under a spotlight, caused by high punctual loads, can never be
          completely avoided with resilient floor coverings. However, they can be minimized by selecting the right adhesive, application quantity (use of TKB recommended notched trowel with suitable notch sizes), proper processing and choice of appropriate chair/furniture sliders (large and level
          contact surface, no sharp edges) and/or use suitable pressure distribution underlays under
          movable furniture or rollers (type W according to EN 12529). This also includes that future use must comply with floor construction.
          2. Classification of Linoleum Flooring
          2.1 DIN EN 548 Resilient Floor Coverings - Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum
          2.2 DIN EN 686 Resilient Floor Coverings- Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Foam Backing
          2.3 DIN EN 687 Resilient Floor Coverings - Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Corkment Backing
          2.4 DIN EN 688 Resilient floor coverings -specification for cork linoleum
          3.Adhesives for Linoleum Floor Coverings
          The different types of adhesives are classified relative to composition, type of processing, setting behaviour and requirements for substrate.
          3.1 Types of Adhesives
          It is recommended to preferably use very low emission adhesives with EMICODE ECl/ECl R
          classification. Only use adhesives specifically approved by flooring manufacturer for bonding of
          linoleum floor covering. Always carefully obsesrve instructions regarding required application quantity or trowel notch size.
          Linoleum floor coverings are preferably bonded using solvent-free, very low emission EMICODE ECl  dispersion adhesives with one-sided application. Alternatively, contact or dry adhesives (e.g. for pedestal formation), 2 component dispersion-cement adhesives or reaction resin adhesives (e.g. on non-absorbent substrates or with high traffic loads) are used.
          3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
          Dispersion adhesives consist of organic binding materials dispersed in water, inorganic fillers and additives. Setting takes place based on a physical process when the water contained in the adhesive evaporates. The setting properties of dispersion adhesives are mainly influenced by the climatic conditions of the installation environment. High temperatures and/or low humidity accelerate, low temperatures and/or high humidity delay the setting process.
          For bonding of linoleum floor coverings, only dispersion adhesives are used with wet bed
          application. This requires an absorbent substrate. The adhesives are applied to the prepared
          substrate using the specified TKB-notched trowel. Dispersion adhesives have a limited open time
          during which the linoleum floor covering shall be placed in the adhesive bed. If open time is
          exceeded, wetting is insufficient and consequently the bond lacks strlength (e.g. hollow areas).
          3.1.2 Contact Adhesives
          Solvent-based contact adhesives consist of dissolved organic binding materials, highly volatile
          solvents (up t0 80 %), inorganic fillers and additives. Dispersion contact adhesives mainly consist of dispersions of natural and synthetic rubbers with inorganic fillers and additives.
          Contact adhesives are only processed with the contact bonding process. They are applied to both sides, i.e. the prepared substrate and floor covering backing and shall be sufficiently aired
          before floor covering is installed. They are mostly used for small area installations such as for bonding of baseboards and flooring on stairs.
          Note:
          The German Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV) (Ordinance on Hazardous Substances) and
          Technische Regel Gefahrstoffe (TRGS) (Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances) 610 severely
          restrict use of adhesives with high solvent content for occupational health and safety reasons. For all situations of linoleum flooring bonding, solvent-free adhesives are available.
          3.1.3 0ther adhesives
          Reaction resin adhesives consist of chemically reactive organic binding materials, inorganic fillers and additives. Reaction resin adhesives are mainly 2-component systems based on olyurethane or epoxy resins and set by chemical reaction. Consequently, they have a limited pot life or processing time. The curing speed of these adhesives is essentially influenced by the
          temperature of adhesive, substrate, floor covering and environment. 2-component reaction resin
          adhesives  require  exact  compliance  with prescribed mixing ratio and careful mixing.
          2-component dispersion/cement powder adhesives consist of a liquid component based on organic binders dispersed in water, a cement and/or gypsum based powder component as well as fillers and additives. In addition to physical drying, a major part of the water contained in the adhesive is bound chemically by reaction with the powder component. On account of this chemical water-binding, less water is given off to the environment (here floor covering and substrate) and the curing process is sped up. Consequently, these adhesives can also be used on non-absorbent or poorly absorbent substrates.  The chemical reaction starts immediately after mixing. These products have a limited pot life and open time.
          Dry adhesives are strips which are self-adhesive on both sides and come in rolls of varying width. Dry adhesives are delivered pre-dried by the manufacturer and therefore do not require airing, setting or drying time. After proper installation, they are immediately load-bearing. Use for baseboards and stairs must be coordinated with the manufacturers of dry adhesive and linoleum floor covering.
          4. Installation of Linoleum Floor Coverings
          4.1 Substrate
          TKB Technical briefing note 8 "Assessment and Preparation of Substrates for Installation of Floor Coverings and Parquet" as well as BEB Technical briefing'snote "Beurteilen und Vorbereiten von Untergrunden. Verlegen von elastischen und textilen Bodenbelagen, hichtstoffelementen
          (Laminat), Parkett und Holzpflaster. Beheizte und unbeheizte FufAbodenkonstruktionen. (Assessment and preparation of substrates. Installation of elastic and textile floor coverings, laminate, parquet and wood paving. Heated and non-heated floor constructionsy' contain detailed instructions and specifications regarding required tests.
          Linoleum floor coverings shall be bonded in a professional manner over the entire surface on a
          substrate conforming to standards, i.e. assessed and properly prepared (see ATV DIN 18365
          "Bodenbelagsarbeiten (Floor covering work)", section 3.1.1,3.3 and 3.4.3).
          When installing baseboards, walls must also be sufficiently dry and even.
          4.2. Storage and Conditioning
          Linoleum flooring shall be stored in a dry place, rolls in standing position. After rolls are unpacked following the roll numbers, the sheets are pre-cut with apsprox. 1 cm/meter or max. 10 cm extra length than needed for installation. Then, before bonding, the sheets - wear side on the outside, loosely rolled up and standing - shall be stored for at least 24 hours in the installation room to adjust to room climate. The room shall have a temperature of min.18 0C. Humidity shall preferably be between 40 - 65 %.
          Linoleum flooring in tiles shall only be conditioned on a level surface according to manufacturer’s instructions.
          4.3 Installation Conditions
          The following threshold values for temperature and relative humidity shall be adhered to :
          . relative humidity between 40 - 65 %
          . room temperature min. 18 ℃
          . temperature of materials used, e.g. flooring, adhesive min. 18 ℃
          . substrate temperature min. 15 0C, for heated construction max. 22 ℃
          On the basis of required curing, drying and reaction times of the installation materials, the
          above room climate conditions shall be maintained for 3 days before installation, during and for 7 days after completion of installation work. Until adhesive has completely cured, the installed area shall be protected from direct sunlight or other thermal effects. Customer shall ensure that these essential measures have been taken, if necessar3r after installer has requested the measures or has voiced reservations.
          Laid out sheets shall be bonded over the entire surface immediately. Dense, non-absorbent substrates, e.g. flow asphalts or sealed screeds must be levelled with sufficient layer thickness
          (recommendation: 2 - 3 mm dry layer thickness) before dispersion adhesives are applied.
          4.4 Installation
          4.4.1 Installation of Linoleum Floor Covering in Sheets
          As a rule, linoleum floor coverings shall never be bent since they may break. When folding back sheets, e.g. before bonding, always maintain a sufficiently large radius in the fold back area.
          4.4,1.1 Cutting of Linoleum Sheets
          When cutting the sheets, always take into consideration that material-specific dimensional
          changes of the flooring can occur especially in the seam and hygienic skisrting board area.
          During bonding, linoleum floor coverings contract lengthwise and expand in width, especially when dispersion-based adhesives are used.
          4.4.1.2 Cutting of Heads
          For heads, length variations on vertical building sections must be prevented for tight cuts. In these cases, with sheet lengths of more than 6 meters, the sheet is bonded up to a remaining length of 1.5 meters. Once the adhesive has achieved sufficient initial strength and the sheet is locked in place, the remaining length is bonded and fitted into the adhesive bed.
          For short lengths and heads of long sheets, when no direct joint will follow, the linoleum heets are folded back over one half of the room. Then, the dispersion adhesive is applied; the sheet is placed in the adhesive bed and rubbed down. Only then is a clean cut performed at the heads. The sheets are then installed in the second half of the room as specified.
          End seams are only fitted and cut after sheet has been placed in adhesive bed.
          4.4.1.3 Edge Cutting
          Both edges of the sheet shall be cut. The first edge (always the same side of the sheets) shall be cut by a minimum of l.5 - 2 cm, even if later the joint is sealed using a welding cord. After cutting, the sheet edge must rest completely and evenly on substrate. If this is not the case, edge must be re-cut. The first edge cut is performed before adhesive is applied e.g. using the appropriate linoleum edge cutter. Cutting of the second sheet edge (seamscut) is performed after sheet has been placed in adhesive bed (see 4.4.1.4).
          Edge cut
          Figure 1: Edge cut
          4.4.1.4 Bonding
          Sheet halves which must be closely fitted to adjoining building sections, e.g. thresholds and
          door cases, shall be bonded as described in first section of chapter 4.4.1.2. For long and narrow
          hallways which require lengthwise bonding, the sheets may also be folded back crosswise. After
          applying the adhesive (generally using TKB notched trowel size Bl), the sheets are immediately placed in the adhesive bed free of tension. Heads must be rolled down (decurled). Only apply adhesive to an area which can be processed and rolled down during open time of adhesive. Backing of the flooring must be fully wetted after placing in adhesive bed. Replace toothed strip in time. Regularly check proper wetting during entire installation.
          When cutting the second sheet edge, the upper sheet is scribed along the lower and already cut sheets and is then cut using a hooked blade. The blade must be designed in a way as not to push aside the adhesive. Using special seam or strip cutters, this process can be performed in one step. In order to prevent seam compression (peaked seams), the sheet edges shall be cut t0 0.5 mm joints. The seam cut is done slightly angled from top to bottom (undercut) so that the seam is slightly wider at the bottom. The seam area shall be rolled down again with a seam roller or pressing hammer after cutting.
          Always observe open time of the adhesive. If open time is exceeded, the backing of the floor covering might not be sufficiently wet:ed. Make sure there are no air pockets. In order to achieve complete wetting of the flooring backing, it must be rubbed page 5 0f7 and then rolled down over the entire area. When rolling/rubbing the flooring down, start along the width, then work lengthwise in order to remove air pockets on the most direct way. Then, the area must be examined with the handle of a hammer to detect possible hollow areas (air pockets) and to
          remove them. If needed, re-rub seams, heads and sags 5 - 20 minutes later or weigh them down. For rubbing down, it is recommended to use a smoother made from cork or carpet-covered wood, for rolling the flooring down use a multi-sectional roller with a weight of at least 65 kg and a width of approx, 40 cm.
          The exact same steps also apply when joint sealing will follow.
          Sags
          A sag is an area of the sheet which is under constant wrap tension and therefore causes hollow
          areas. Sags are caused when during the maturing process the material is suspended in big loops in the drying chamber. Most often, they are found in the middle of each full flooring roll and can be more or less distinctive depending on thickness of the flooring or temperature (always observe manufactures instructions regarding bonding of these areas).
          4.4.2 Installation of Linoleum Flooring in Tiles
          Linoleum flooring in tiles is manufactured with jute or polyester/glass fleece backing. Please take this into consideration when selecting the adhesive and application quantity (appropriate notched trowel). Normally, installation is performed with cross joints in alternating directions (chessboard). When installing tiles, first lay down a parallel to the main front of the room using a reference line and the starting point for install~tion of the first row of tiles so that in the edge area the size of the edge tiles does not fall under 10 cm. Only use white chalk for the reference line. In order to prevent any offset, a stepped installation it is recommended, preferably in a chessboard pattern.
          4.4.3 Bonding of Profiles
          Dry adhesives or dispersion contact adhesives approved  by  flooring  manufacturer  are
          recommended for bonding of profiles. Restrict the use of contact adhesives with a high level of
          solvents to the absolute minimum technically necessary (see item 3.1.3).
          When using dry adhesives or dispersion contact adhesives, the elements to be bonded must be
          fitted exactly since subsequent corrections are almost impossible to perform. After installation, the elements must be immediately pressed and tapped down firmly over the entire length.
          4.5 Seam Sealing
          4.5.1 Thermal Seam Sealing
          It is recommended to seal the joints of linoleum flooring in the commercial sector, in particular in hygiene areas. For substrates sensitive to moisture (e.g. wood particle-based panels, calcium sulfate-bound substrates) as well as in rooms where frequent wet cleaning must be performed, as a rule seam sealing shall afways be performed.
          Thermal sealing shall only be performed after adhesive has fus;ly cured, as a rule after 24 hours at the earliest, but better yet after 2 - 3 days (see manufacturer's instructions). The joints are opened using a special miller or groover over a width of approx. 3.5 mm and upst0 2/3 0f the flooring thickness. The joint shall be carefully cleaned (vacuumed). The welding cord can either be processed using an automatic fuse machine (cord must pass the machine tension-free) or a hand welder with attached quick-weld nozzle (with a welding cord passage of 5 mm). In order to avoid damages’ the surface of the flooring, select a welding nozzle with a narrow air outlet. Bsolutely avoid exceeding or falling short of specified processing temperature. Work at a pace that allows melted cord to easily run into mill groove (2.5 - 3.0 meters/min) by applying only light
          pressure and to completely fill the groove. Excess material is removed in two steps:
          The first removal step is performed when joint has not yet cooled down using a sharp quarter    moon knife with trim guide attached.
          The second step takes place only after joints have completely cooled down - excess is removed flush to flooring surface, also using a quarter moon knife.
          Note:
          As an alternative to the quarter moon knife, we recommend the Mozart utility blade (Mozart AG, Solingen, www.mozart-blades.de). This blade is designed so it only takes off excess in the joint area, thus minimizing or even avoiding damage to the flooring surface.
          4.5.2 Seam Sealing using 2-Component joint Sealers
          Special requirements for seam sealing, e.g. in laboratory areas or in the healthcare sector, are
          met by using l  or 2-component joint sealers (e.g. on polyurethane basis). Always observe the
          relevant recommendations issued by flooring manufacturer.
          4.6 Special Floor Covering Constructions
          When installing linoleum floor coverings on corkment, for composite flooring with corkment or
          foam backing, on suitable impact sound insulation layers and for conductive linoleum floor overings, always observe instructions issued by flooring and adhesive manufacturers.
          4.7 Cleaning and Maintenance
          The installer shall hand over to customer written care instructions for the floor covering together with order confirmation, at the latest before completion of installation according to VOB DIN 18365, Part C.
          System cleaning and maintenance products shall be used and shall not adversely affect the floor covering properties.
          5. Relevant Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
          In the following, please find the relevant applicable standards and technical briefing notes. The current versions apply.
          5.1 Industrial Safety
          Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoftV), Published December 23, 2004 (BGBI. I S 3758), amended by article 2 0f the ordinance of December 18, 2008 (BGBI. I S 2768)
          5.2 Standards for Linoleum Flooring
          Validity of the standards needs to be checked if required (e.g. www.beuth.de)
          DIN EN 685
          Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings –Classification November 2007
          DIN EN 548
          Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum November 2004
          DIN EN 687
          Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum on a corkment backing September 1997
          DIN EN 686
          Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum on a foam backing
          September 1997
          DIN EN 688
          Resilient floor coverings - specification for cork linoleum September 1997
          5.3 Standards for Linoleum Flooring Adhesives
          DIN EN 14259
          Adhesives for floor coverings - requirements for mechanical and electrical performance July 2004
          5.4 Standards for Floor Installation Work
          5.5 TKB Technical Briefing Notes
          TKB-Technical Briefing Note 6
          Trowel notch sizes for floor coverings, wood flooring and tiles May 2007
          TKB-Technical Briefing Note 8
          Assessment and preparation of substrates for installation of floor coverings and parquet June 2004
          TKB- Technical Briefing Note 9
          Technical specification and installation of floor leveling compounds April 2008
          5.6 Literature and Commentaries
          The details and information in this technical briefing note are based on the best knowledge of the publishers. They are provided for informational purposes only and as a non-binding guideline without representation or warranty of any kind. When in doubt, test installations shall be performed.

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